The base wine used for carbonation, like the base wine for fermented sparkling wines, must be well balanced, with no single varietal flavour predominating. Young fruity wines are preferred, and the wine should not contain any trace of off-odour. Since no secondary fermentation takes place, wines of 11.5 to 12.5 percent alcohol content are used. The wine should be tartrate-stable, metal-stable, and brilliant, and the sulfur-dioxide content should be low. For white wines, the colour should be a light yellow.
A variety of techniques have been used for carbonation. Production of carbonation by passing the wine from one bottle to another, under carbon-dioxide pressure, is now seldom employed because of its slowness. Carbonation has been produced in bottles after deaeration, and this technique could be adapted to multibottle operations. Direct carbonation is frequently practiced with cold wine in pressure tanks, and if the stream of gas is finely divided, good carbonation is obtained. Pinpoint carbonation, spraying the wine into a pressure chamber containing carbon dioxide, may also be employed. Following the carbonation procedure, the wine is bottled under pressure. A cork or plastic or crown-cap closure is applied, the label is affixed, and the wine is cased for distribution.
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